Dystonia patients unable to obtain symptom relief from medications or Botox injections should consider deep brain stimulation as an alternate therapy. Bilateral DBS of globus pallidus internus (GPi) usually produces substantial improvement in symptoms in patients with primary generalized dystonia (i.e., dystonia not resulting from injury to the brain by tumor, stroke, trauma, etc.) DBS has also been shown to be beneficial in persons with segmental cranio-cervical dystonia. Response to DBS in patients with secondary dystonia has not been as encouraging.

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