Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a minimally-invasive approach for treatment of benign and malignant brain tumors, and other neurological diseases such as vascular malformations, pain syndromes and movement disorders. The most common neurological diseases to be successfully treated with radiosurgery include meningiomas, acoustic neuromas, pituitary adenomas, brain metastases, craniopharyngiomas, arterio-venous malformations, and trigeminal neuralgia. Recent technological advances such as the CyberKnife radiosurgical system also allow treatment of benign and malignant tumors of the spine, including spinal metastases.
Radiosurgery involves computer-guided, extremely precise delivery of high doses of radiation. By avoiding open craniotomy or spine surgery in appropriate patients, radiosurgery frequently decreases the risks associated with traditional treatment of neurosurgical conditions. In situations where a brain lesion cannot be safely approached by a craniotomy, because of its association with critical brain structures, radiosurgery may represent the only treatment option. Radiosurgery is typically an outpatient procedure and patients usually resume normal activities immediately after treatment. Over the past decade there have been significant advancements in the field of stereotactic radiosurgery in conjunction with enhanced imaging capabilities and computing power. These technological advancements have resulted in improvement in patient outcomes and have extended the capabilities of radiosurgeons to safely treat a wider variety of neurosurgical conditions. Currently the most widely used systems for delivery of radiosurgery are linear accelerators, CyberKnife and Gamma Knife.